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Duk abin da kake bukata don sanin game da mahaukaciyar spiro

Duk abin da kake bukata don sanin game da mahaukaciyar spiro

Gabatarwa ga mahaɗan Spiro

Tsakanin motsa jiki wani sashi ne wanda ake amfani da shi guda biyu a ciki. A yanayi, sifofin zobba na iya kasancewa ɗaya ko daban-daban, da kuma atomatik dake haɗa da zoben biyu an kira spiroatom (atomatik atomatik), yawanci shi ne ƙananan 4 carbon (wanda aka sani da karfin carbon), kuma yana iya kuma zama silicon, phosphorus, ko arsenic. Aikin atomatik yana da ƙwayar carbon atom. Ƙungiyar spiro za ta yi amfani da parentheses don rubuta lambar zobe dabam. Lambar ringi tana dauke da atomatik kanta, kuma ƙananan lambar zai kasance a gaban lambar kuma rabu da wani dot.

Akalla biyu zobba a cikin kwayoyin raba wani ƙwayar carbon (a wasu mahaukaci, wasu nau'in halitta, kamar silicon, phosphorus, arsenic, da dai sauransu). Ana iya samun zoben guda biyu a kan jiragen sama guda biyu da ke haɗe da juna: sau da yawa sunadaran spiro suna chiral kuma za a iya magance su a cikin isomers na gani (duba isomerism mai gani). Game da nau'i, mahaifa H2C = C = CH2 shine ƙananan kyamarar spiro, kuma an sanya gurbin kwayar halitta kamar 1,3-propadienediic acid yana aiki sosai kuma za'a iya raba shi cikin biyu isomers masu aiki. jiki.

Kundin

(1) Bisa ga yawan spiro kwayoyin halitta, da spiro fili za a iya kasu guda spiro fili, a dispiro, wani sau uku spiro, da kuma wani Multi-karkace fili dauke da wani jam'i na spiro kwayoyin halitta.

(2) Za a iya rarraba motar motar carbocyclic da heterocyclic spiro mai siffar irin nau'in atom din da za a ƙunshe, kuma idan an canza atomar atom din da ke dauke da motar motar carbocyclic ta atomatik, an kafa wani ƙwayar heterocyclic spiro.

(3) Dangane da nau'in zobe, ana iya raba shi cikin cikakken mahaukaci, unsaturated, aromatic da aliphatic spiro mahadi.

(4) Haɗin gwiwar heterospirocyclic. Ɓarfin atomatik a cikin fili na spiro na iya zama carbon atom ko wasu abubuwa kamar Si, N, P, Ge da sauransu. Idan atomatik atomin karfe ne mai nau'in atomatik, ana danganta haɗin haɗin gwiwa, kuma ana kiran wannan sashen mai kwakwalwa a matsayin haɗin gwargwadon heterocyclic.

Polymeric spiro fili

Hanyoyin spiro polymeric shine haɗuwa biyu ko fiye da mahaukacin spiro kamar uku ko fiye da zobba. A lokacin da ake kira wani fili mai kwakwalwa, adabin lambar da ya kara di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., da dai sauransu. Zuwa sunan yana nufin adadin halittun spiro dake wanzu a tsakanin zobba. An kirkiro dabobi a cikin spiro. Maganar jigilar polyspirocyclic zata fara da kwayar zobe wanda ke danganta wani atomatik atomatik, wadda ake kira ƙirar ƙira. Wadannan kwayoyin polyspirocyclic zasu iya samun zobba biyu ko fiye kuma an haɗe su a fili mai yawa. Daga cikin su, kawai nau'in atomatik ya haɗa da juna. Za a samo nomenclature a cikin ƙararrawa ta atomatik ta atomatik kusa da atomatik atomatik, wanda aka lakafta shi azaman lambar 1, sannan kuma lamarin ya ƙidaya ta fara da kwayoyin.

Lambobi biyu ko mafi ƙarancin, lambar farawa na zobe mai mahimmanci za ta sami wata hanyar zaɓi. A lokacin da aka ƙidaya numfashi na farko, dole ne a haɗa mahalarta masu amfani da hotuna tare da karamin karfin. Lambar. Yi la'akari da akwai fili tare da zobba biyu, wanda tare da nau'in 6 kuma ɗaya tare da atomatik 8. An fara kirgawa tare da zobe na 6 mahaukaci, saboda bayan lambobi, za a ƙidaya spiroatom 6. Idan zoben da ke kunshe da atomatik 8 ya fara, za a ƙidaya spiroatom 8. Jagoran lambar yana ƙaddara ta spiroatom (farawa a farkon spiroatom na ƙirar haɗin da aka ƙidayar). Ka yi la'akari da ƙwanƙwasawa ta atomatik fara yawan lambobi a daya hanya, kuma idan lambar ta kasa da lambar a cikin wani shugabanci, an zaɓi macijin ƙwaƙwalwa. Ana amfani da shugabanci tare da ƙarami lamba don fara sunan. A cikin ƙaramin karkace na gaba, lambar adadin lambar ba ta da muhimmanci. A wasu lokuta, za a shirya shirin farko na biyu, uku, hudu ko fiye waɗanda aka tsara a daidai wannan lambar ba tare da wane jagoran da aka ƙidaya su ba. Za'a zaɓin zaɓi na jagorancin lamba ta hanyar tsarin lissafin lokacin da aka sadu da adadin ƙirar mahaifa, kuma an zaɓi shugabancin ƙananan ƙwayoyin ƙarfe. Alal misali, idan tsarin lambobi a daya shugabanci, yawan kowace spiroatom ita ce 3, 5, 7, 10, da kuma yawan spiroatoms a cikin wani shugabanci shine 3, 5, 7, 9, sa'an nan kuma shugabanci na lamba na biyu an zaɓi. . A wannan yanayin, a cikin jagorancin lambar farko, lambar tsakanin ƙananan ƙaranni biyu shine 7 da 10, kuma a cikin jagorancin lambar, 7 da 9. Ƙididdigar kowane ƙirar motsi bayan wannan bai da mahimmanci ba, kuma jagorar lambar ƙayyadewa ta ƙayyade ta hanyar jagorancin lambar 9.

A cikin kirkirar raunin spiro mai yawa, lambar farko a cikin iyayengiji ya nuna cewa ingancin farko a cikin ƙaho mafi kusa da atomar atom din shine lambar daya. Sauran lambobi suna wakiltar adadin halittu a tsakanin atomatik spiro, ko maɓuɓɓuka a cikin ƙararrakin mota. Kowane lamba yana rabu da wani lokaci (lokacin Ingilishi). A cikin wannan misali, akwai ƙwayoyin biyu (aka ƙidaya 1 da 2) kafin ingancin farko (3). Babu alamomi tsakanin 3 da 4 spiroatoms, kuma daidai ne ga masu kwarjini a 4 da 5, 5 da 6. Akwai nau'i biyu a kan ƙarar na biyu, 6 da 5, 5 da 4, kuma akwai ɗaya tsakanin 4 da 3.

Saboda haka, ana samo jerin [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1]. A misali a gefen dama, akwai nau'i-nau'i guda biyu, don haka sunan dispiro ya fara. A cikin sautin farko, akwai nau'i biyu, suna nuna sunan dispiro [2. Kashi na gaba, akwai nau'i daya da hudu a cikin sauran ƙananan mota tsakanin sassan biyu, suna bayyana sunan maciji guda biyu [2.1.3 5. An ƙara kwakwalwa ta biyu, ƙididdige 5, a matsayin hanyar da za ta haɗu da adadin halittu bayan yawan adadin da ke cikin maɓallin ƙira, ta ƙarshe ƙara 9 da 10 atomatik tsakanin 3 da 5 spiroatoms Sa'an nan kuma ƙara alkane yana da iri ɗaya adadin halittu na spiro compound, decane, sunaispiro [2.1.3 5 .2 3] decane da sunan ya bayyana.

General nomenclature na spiro mahadi
Gidan da ake kira monospirocyclic ya ƙayyade sunan mahaifiyar mai yaduwar jini bisa ga yawan adadin ƙwayar carbon da ke cikin haɓakar zobe; dukkanin hanyoyi a kan lambobin spiro suna ƙidaya a cikin tsari na ƙananan zobe da kuma babban zobe kuma an rage girman nau'in spiro; to, ana biye da su ta madaidaiciya. An tsara jerin jimla na dukan zobe ta lamba ta yawan adadin carbon carbon sandwiched tsakanin ƙaranin spiro wanda ya dace, kuma a gaban sunan sarkar hydrocarbon wanda yake daidai da dukan zobe; an raba lambobin ta hanyar ƙananan, a cikin tsari: snail [a, b] alkane.

Hybrid dunƙule

Sakamakon da ya faru na zoben haɗari yana nufin cewa biyu nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i ko nau'in nau'i-nau'i na electrons a cikin kwaskwarima suna a cikin wata hanya ta gaba don rage lokacin tsalle na kwayoyin kuma rage ƙarfin ƙwayar jikin. A 1968, ƙaddamar da binciken bincike na farko ya ba da shawarar sakamako. Lokacin da sukayi nazarin acetal keke, sun gano cewa mahaɗin dake cikin adadi da ke ƙasa sun ƙunshi 57% na isomer cis da 43% na isomer trans a cikin ma'aunin ma'auni a 80 C. Siffar isomer cis ta hanyar Trans The isomer ya kasance barga tare da wani bambancin makamashi na 0.71 kJ / mol. Saboda sakamakon da yake ciki na isomer cis, isomer trans ba shi da wani tasiri.

Zama

Wasu magungunan ƙwaƙwalwa suna da wani tsaka-tsaki. Spiroatoms na iya zama cibiyoyin chiral, koda kuwa basu rasa wasu maye gurbi guda hudu da ake buƙatar kiyaye nauyin ƙwayar jiki. Lokacin da zobba biyu sun kasance ɗaya, tsarin na CIP yana ba da fifiko mafi girma don ƙara tsawo na ɗaya zobe da sauran zoben ƙananan fifiko. Ana iya amfani dashi lokacin da zobe ba daidai ba ne.

Za'a iya rarraba mahadiyoyin Cyclic ta hanyar bin ka'idodi masu zuwa:

• Gidan alicyclic

Wannan wani abu ne wanda ke da alaka da kwayoyin halitta wadda ke da wani sashi mai aliphatic da kuma wani sashen cyclic. Sun ƙunshi ɗaya ko fiye da ƙwayar carbocyclic mai cikakken ko unsaturated, amma zoben ba su da kyau.

• Naphtthenic

Bisa ga girman zobe, ana iya rarraba ƙananan ƙaramin ƙananan ƙanana, matsakaici da babba. Cyclopropane da cyclobutane suna dauke da kananan. Cyclopentane na al'ada, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, da cyclooctane zuwa cyclotridecane suna da matsakaici, kuma mafi girma ana daukar su manyan ƙananan ƙafa.

Cycloolefin

Wannan shi ne hydrocarbon cyclic da ke da nauyin haɗin carbon carbon-carbon. Makiyoyi guda daya sun hada da cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene da cyclohexene, yayin da 'yan kananan yara na cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. Jira. Wasu 'yan kallon cyclic, irin su cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, za a iya polymerized a matsayin monomers don samar da polymers.

• Aromatic hydrocarbon

Mafi sauki da kuma mafi muhimmanci aromatic hydrocarbons ne benzeneand da homologues kamar toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene da sauransu. A cikin aromatics, wasu ƙananan zobe ba cikakkun sassan benzene bane, amma ana amfani da carbon carbon a cikin su ta hanyar nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur da sauran abubuwa. Muna kira su da layi, kamar yuan biyar kamar furan. Ƙungiyar ya haɗa da oxygen atom kuma pyrrole ya ƙunshi atomatik nitrogen.Thiophene yana dauke da sulfur atom da sauran.

Kuma ana iya rarraba kayan aikin aromatics zuwa:

• Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
• Hanyoyin hydrocarbon aromatic polycyclic
Ana amfani dasu masu amfani da halayen sifa wadanda suke da siffar shinge mai suna aliphatic benes, kuma sunadarai na aliphatic sunadarai sune uku, ethylbenzene, styrene, da sauransu.
• Harkokin Hanya

Ya ƙunshi nauyin haɗaka wanda ba ya ƙunsar sautin heterocycli ko mai maye gurbinsa. Yawancin su sanannu ne ko yiwuwar carcinogens. Mafi sauki daga wannan sinadaran ne naphthalene, tare da biyu aromatic zobba, kazalika da tricyclic mahadi ruthenium da phenanthrene.

Hanyoyin hydrocarbons masu amfani da ƙwayoyi na zamani sun kasance tsaka-tsakin, wadanda ba a cikin kwayoyin kwakwalwa da aka samu a cikin karamar kwalliya da tsada. Sannan sun hada da kwayoyin halitta ta hanyar konewa ba tare da cikakke ba (misali, inji da incinerator, lokacin da gandun daji ke ƙonewa a fuka-fuki da sauransu). Alal misali, ƙin konewa na ƙwayar mota irin su bishiya, katako, man shafawa, da taba. Haka kuma ana samun nama a cikin nama.

Magunguna masu mahimmanci fiye da uku suna da low solubility da matsanancin ƙwayar tururi a cikin ruwa. Lokacin da kwayoyin kwayoyin sun ƙaru, ƙananan solubility da rage tursasa suna karuwa. Kwayoyin masu amfani da sinadarai masu amfani da sinadarin keke sun kasance suna da ƙananan solubility da matsa lamba. Magungunan ƙwayoyin ma'adanai na ƙwayoyin motsa jiki sun kasance sun fi samuwa a cikin ƙasa kuma a cikin sutura fiye da ruwa da iska. Duk da haka, ana samun nau'o'in haɓakar ƙwayoyin polycyclic a kan dakatar da ƙwayoyi a cikin iska.

Yawancin polycylic aromatic mahadi an bayyana a matsayin carcinogens. Rahotanni na jarrabawa sun nuna cewa dogon lokacin da ake nunawa ga manyan maganganun polycyclic aromatic mahadi na iya haifar da ciwon daji, ciwon huhu na huhu, ciwon ciki da kuma ciwon hanta. Magungunan ƙwayoyin magunguna na zamani zasu iya halakar da kwayoyin halitta cikin jiki, haifar da ci gaban kwayoyin cutar ciwon daji kuma ya kara yawan ciwon daji.

Lokacin da kwayoyin kwayoyin sun karu, an kara yawan kwayar cutar ta polycyclic din, kuma an rage yawan toxicity. Wani fili na polycyclic, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene), shine farkon sinadarin sinadarin sinadaran da za a gano.

Aikace-aikace

Mai ba da damar fadadawa

The girma shrinkage na polymer a lokacin Polymerization ko solidification ne ya sa ta van der Waals karfi tsakanin monomer kwayoyin a cikin ruwa jiha ko uncrosslinked dogon-sarkar kwayoyin, da kuma nĩsa tsakanin kwayoyin ne manyan; bayan gyaran fuska ko gicciyewa, Tsakanin Covalent tsakanin raka'a tsarin zai haifar da shrinkage na ƙaramin polymer. An ambaci cewa shrinkage wani lokaci muni ne ga polymer, irin su haifar da tsufa na polymer, lalata, da kuma rage yawan aikin. Domin warware girma shrinkage matsala na polymer magance, chemists sun yi kokari, amma kullum zai iya rage kawai, kuma ba zai iya gaba daya kashe girma shrinkage. Har zuwa 1972, Bailey et al. ta samo jerin jerin mahaukaciyar spiro kuma sun gano cewa wadannan mahadar suna polymerized. Lokacin da ƙarar ba ta raguwa ba, yana fadada. Binciken da aka samu a cikin mahaukaci sun jawo sha'awar masana kimiyya da dama, kuma an gudanar da bincike mai yawa. Masana sun kara girma sun zama kayan aikin polymer. Magunguna masu gina jiki irin su spiro orthoester da spiro orthocarbonate sunadaran fadada kuma sunyi amfani da su a cikin shirye-shiryen masu ƙarfin hawan ƙarfin, manyan kayan aiki, kayan aikin polymer da sauransu da sauransu. Canji na mawallafi na asali da kuma kira na oligomers tare da ƙungiyoyi masu aiki.

electroluminescence

Yayinda ko dai wani sashi na kwayoyin halitta ya kawo hasken haske da kuma hasken watsi da hasken haske da kuma yadda isasshen fitarwa ya fi dacewa akan tsarin sunadaran. Fluorescence yawanci yakan auku a cikin kwayoyi tare da jiragen ruwa mai mahimmanci da tsarin haɗin gwiwar, wanda ke inganta tasirin wutar lantarki da kuma hada-hadar da kwayoyin halitta, wanda ke da amfani wajen inganta yawan halayen fuka. Akwai abubuwa masu yawa na haske-duhu. Nau'ikan iri sune: spiro ring, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole da kuma irin nau'in hade. Daga cikin su, waxannan abubuwa masu mahimmanci sun hada da tsarin haɗin gwiwar kirki da halayen kirki da halayen gine-gine, matsakaicin gilashin sararin samaniya da matsayi mai zafi. Na'urar EL yana da sauƙi a tsari kuma baya buƙatar kayan aiki mai wuyar gaske, saboda haka yana yiwuwa a rage farashin kayan aiki a lokacin lokacin kuma don shirya kayan na'urori mai girma.

pesticide

Ƙarfin ƙwayar da aka yi da spiro dauke dauke da hetero atom ba sauki ba ne don samar da juriya sabili da su na musamman na aikin, kuma sun sami babban hankali a kan ci gaba da magungunan kashe qwari. Alal misali: Rudi et al. ya ruwaito 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] undecane-3,9-dioxide da sulfide Hydrogen da aka haɓaka don haɗakar da wani littafi mai kwakwalwa, 3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] maras kyau. Sakamakonta su ne sababbin kwayoyin cututtukan kwayoyin halitta da kuma herbicides, wadanda zasu iya cire mustard, ragweed, da dai sauransu daga alkama, hatsi, auduga da waken soya.